Surendranath Banerjee born – November 10, 1848, Calcutta; death – August 6, 1925, Barrackpore) was a famous freedom fighter, who was twice elected president of the Congress.
He is also known as the ‘Creator of Bengal’ of 1905. He established the Indian National Committee, one of the early Indian political organizations, and later became a senior leader of the Indian National Congress.
Surendranath Banerjee Biography
Birth and family
Surendra Nath Banerjee was born on 10 November 1848 in the city of Kolkata, Bengal, to a Bengali Brahmin family. Surendra Nath Banerjee’s father’s name was Dr. Durga Charan Banerjee and he was deeply influenced by his father’s deep liberal and progressive thinking.
Surendranath Banerjee studied at the parent academic institute and Hindu college. After graduating from the University of Calcutta, he along with Romesh Chandra Dutt and Bihari Lal Gupta traveled to England in 1868 to complete the Indian Civil Service examinations.
He graduated in 1868, an important leader of liberal ideology. In 1868, he passed the Indian Civil Services Examination. Before this, Satyendranath Tagore in 1867 ADICS They were the first Indians to be built. In 1877, he was appointed to the post of Assistant Magistrate of Sylhet, but soon he was dismissed by the government.
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After graduation, Surendranath Banerjee applied for admission to the Indian Civil Service ( Indian Administrative Service ) in England. At that time there was only one Hindu in this service.
Banerjee was not included on the grounds that she had misrepresented her age. Accusing the ethnicity of discrimination, Banerjee, in his appeal, argued that according to Hindu custom.
He had added his age from the time of conception and not from birth and he won. Banerjee was appointed to Sylhet (now Bangladesh), but in 1874 on charges of implementation irregularities. Was removed amidst huge controversy and protests.
He then tried to register his name as a barrister, but he was refused permission for that, as he was dismissed from the Indian Civil Service (Indian Administrative Service). For him, it was an ongoing injury and he felt that as an Indian he was suffering all this.
Surendranath Banerjee Education
Elementary education was done in the family’s parent education institute ‘ Hindu College ‘. And after that, he did his graduation from Calcutta University.
Indian Civil Services Examination
And for further studies, he went to England in 1868 and from there prepared for the Indian Civil Service Examination. And in the year 1869, he passed the examination.
But his selection was rejected due to controversy related to age. And he took the court with him on this matter. And after the intervention of the court, he again sat for the examination and was re-elected in 1871.
His contribution to the freedom movement
Sir Banerjee entered the active liquor movement in 1870 by entering active politics. He founded the Indian Association to form an organization of Indians to oppose the partisan policy of the British authorities, whose aim was to create public opinion, Hindu-Muslim unity, freedom of the general public.
Banerjee was a staunch supporter of Indian independence. If he had to suffer so much in bringing freedom to Indians, he would bear it, he thought.
He was the biggest contributor to the establishment of the Indian National Congress. He was the Chairman of the first Bombay session of the Congress.
Taking active participation in other conventions, he founded the Separate Liberal Union in 1919. Sir Surendranath Banerjee called in the Virat Sabha (Calcutta) on 24 March 1877 by the British Government to increase the age of civil government from 19 years to 2 years. A delegation sent to England.
Banerjee got success in this constitutional movement that the British government had to amend it to increase the age limit to 21 years. He opposed the Vernacular Press Act by the government. Fearing their opposition, the then Viceroy made the Act stay. As a journalist, he revolted against the British government through the Bengali newspaper and organized the public.
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Some interesting information related to Surendranath Banerjee
- Surendranath Banerjee was born in a Bengali Brahmin family in Kolkata.
- He was heavily influenced by his father’s liberal progressive policies.
- In 1868, after graduating from the University of Calcutta, he along with two of his friends Romesh Chandra Dutt and Bihari Lal Gupta went to England to complete the Indian Public Service Commission examination.
- In the year 1869, Banerjee was barred from appearing in the examination due to not being of the correct age.
- In the year 1871, he was approved by the court to appear for re-examination. Due to which he started working as an assistant magistrate in Sylhet, passing the examination.
- However, he was soon sacked due to racial discrimination, he went to England to protest against the decision, but was unsuccessful there.
- During the years 1874–1875, he studied the works of Edmund Burke and other philosophers in England. Edmund Burke
- After returning to India in June 1875, he became a professor of English at the Metropolitan Institution, Free Church Institution, and Ripon College, which was founded by him in the year 1882.
- On 26 July 1876, he founded the Indian National Committee in association with Anandmohan Bose. He used this committee to deal with the issue of the age limit of students appearing in Indian Union Public Service examinations.
- In the year 1879, he started the newspaper “The Bengali”.
- After the establishment of the Indian National Congress in Mumbai in 1885, he merged his organization for the purposes of the general public.
- He was elected as Congress President in Pune in 1895 and in Ahmedabad in 1902.
- Surendranath was one of the most popular leaders of the Indian independence movement, who defended the partition of Bengal in the year 1905.
- He was an important figure in the Swadeshi movement, as he advocated goods manufactured in India against foreign products.
- In the year 1909, he supported the Morley-Minto Reform Act. Due to which he faced severe criticism from the Indian public and nationalist politicians.
- As a minister in the Bengal government, he faced the wrath of most of the public and politicians. As a result, the Swaraj Party candidate lost the Bengal Assembly elections against Vidhan Chandra Rai.
- On 6 August 1925, Surendranath Banerjee died in Barrackpore, Bengal Presidency.
- Surendranath Banerjee was conferred with the title of ‘Sir’ by the British Government. Due to which he came to be called “Sir Surendranath Banerjee”.
- On 28 December 1983, a commemorative postage stamp was issued by the Government of India in honor of Surendranath Banerjee.
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